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Universities in India
The University of Madras, established in 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India, the others being the University of Calcutta and the University of Mumbai.
The higher education system in India includes both private and public universities. Public universities are
supported by the Government of India and the state governments, while private universities are mostly supported by various bodies and societies. Universities in India are recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which draws its power from the University Grants Commission Act, 1956. In addition, 15 Professional Councils are established, controlling different aspects of accreditation and coordination.
The types of universities include:
1 Central universities, or Union universities are established by an Act of Parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Union Human Resource Development Ministry. The UGC lists 42 central universities.
2 State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India, and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. As of 30 November 2011, the UGC lists 285 state universities. The oldest establishment date listed by the UGC is 1857, shared by the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta.
Note that most State Universities are “affiliating universities” in that they administer a large number of “affiliated colleges” (many located in very small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges might even offer PhD programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
3 Deemed university, or “Deemed to be University“, is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act. The UGC list from 23 June 2008 lists 130 deemed universities. According to this list, the first institute to be granted deemed university status was Indian Institute of Science which was granted this status on 12 May 1958. Note that in many cases, the same listing by the UGC covers several institutes. For example, the listing for Homi Bhabha National Institute covers the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, the Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences and other institutes. Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. The UGC list of private universities from 7 June 2012 lists 112 private universities.
As of 22 June 2012, the total number of universities in India is 567. There are universities of some kind in each and every of the 28 states of India as well as three of the union territories, Chandigarh, Delhi and Puducherry. The state with the most universities is Tamil Nadu with 55 universities. It is also the state with the most deemed universities, numbering 29. Andhra Pradesh has the most state universities (32), Rajasthan the most private universities (25), while Delhi and Uttar Pradesh have four central universities each, the largest number of all the states and territories.
List of State Universities
List of Deemed Universities